Rhodius VA, Mutalik VK. 2010. Predicting strength and function for promoters of the Escherichia coli alternative sigma factor, sigmaE. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(7):2854-9
Koo BM, Rhodius VA, Nonaka G, deHaseth PL, Gross CA. 2009. Reduced capacity of alternative sigmas to melt promoters ensures stringent promoter recognition. Genes & Development, 23: 2426:2436.
Mutalik VK, Nonaka G, Ades SE, Rhodius VA, Gross CA. 2009. Promoter strength properties of the complete sigma E regulon of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. Journal of Bacteriology, 191(23):7279-87
Koo BM, Rhodius VA, Campbell EA, Gross CA. 2009. Dissection of recognition determinants of Escherichia coli σ32 suggests a composite -10 region with an 'extended -10' motif and a core -10 element. Molecular Microbiology, 72(4):815-29.
Typas A, Nichols RJ, Siegele DA, Shales M, Collins SR, Lim B, Braberg H, Yamamoto N, Takeuchi R, Wanner BL, Mori H, Weissman JS, Krogan NJ, Gross CA. 2008. High-throughput, quantitative analyses of genetic interactions in E. coli. Nature Methods, 5(9):781-7.
Ahuja N, Korkin D, Chaba R, Cezairliyan BO, Sauer RT, Kim KK, Gross CA. 2008. Analyzing the interaction of RseA and RseB, the two negative regulators of the sigmaE envelope stress response, using a combined bioinformatic and experimental strategy. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 284(8):5403-13.
Guisbert E, Yura T, Rhodius VA, Gross CA. 2008. Convergence of molecular, modeling, and systems approaches for an understanding of the Escherichia coli heat shock response. Microbiological Molecular Biology Reviews, 284(8):5403-13.
Thirunavukkarasu N, Mishra MN, Spaepen S, Vanderleyden J, Gross CA, Tripathi AK. 2008. An extra-cytoplasmic function sigma factor and anti-sigma factor control carotenoid biosynthesis in Azospirillum brasilense. Microbiology, 154(Pt 7):2096-105.
Yura T, Guisbert E, Poritz M, Lu CZ, Campbell E, Gross CA. 2007. Analysis of sigma32 mutants defective in chaperone-mediated feedback control reveals unexpected complexity of the heat shock response. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(45):17638-43.
Chaba R, Grigorova IL, Flynn JM, Baker TA, Gross CA. 2007. Design principles of the proteolytic cascade governing the sigmaE-mediated envelope stress response in Escherichia coli: keys to graded, buffered, and rapid signal transduction. Genes & Development, 21(1):124-36.
Guisbert E, Rhodius VA, Ahuja N, Witkin E, Gross CA. 2007. Hfq modulates the sigmaE-mediated envelope stress response and the sigma32-mediated cytoplasmic stress response in Escherichia coli. Journal of Bacteriology, 189(5):1963-73.
Kurata H, El-Samad H, Iwasaki R, Ohtake H, Doyle JC, Grigorova I, Gross CA, Khammash M. 2006. Module-based analysis of robustness tradeoffs in the heat shock response system. PLoS Computational Biology 28;2(7):e59.
Nonaka G, Blankschien M, Herman C, Gross CA, Rhodius VA. 2006. Regulon and promoter analysis of the E. coli heat-shock factor, sigma32, reveals a multifaceted cellular response to heat stress. Genes & Development 20(13):1776-89.
Grigorova IL, Phleger NJ, Mutalik VK, Gross CA. 2006. Insights into transcriptional regulation and sigma competition from an equilibrium model of RNA polymerase binding to DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103(14):5332-7.
Rhodius VA, Suh WC, Nonaka G, West J, Gross CA. 2006. Conserved and variable functions of the sigmaE stress response in related genomes. PLoS Biology (1):e2.
Onufryk C, Crouch ML, Fang FC, Gross CA. 2005. Characterization of six lipoproteins in the sigmaE regulon. Journal of Bacteriology 187(13):4552-61.
Berghofer-Hochheimer Y, Lu CZ, Gross CA. 2005. Altering the interaction between sigma70 and RNA polymerase generates complexes with distinct transcription-elongation properties. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102(4):1157-62.
Guisbert E, Herman C, Lu CZ, Gross CA. 2004. A chaperone network controls the heat shock response in E. coli. Genes & Development 18(22):2812-21.
Grigorova IL, Chaba R, Zhong HJ, Alba BM, Rhodius V, Herman C, Gross CA. 2004. Fine-tuning of the Escherichia coli sigmaE envelope stress response relies on multiple mechanisms to inhibit signal-independent proteolysis of the transmembrane anti-sigma factor, RseA. Genes & Development 18(21):2686-97.
Geszvain K, Gruber TM, Mooney RA, Gross CA, Landick R. 2004. A hydrophobic patch on the flap-tip helix of E.coli RNA polymerase mediates sigma(70) region 4 function. Journal of Molecular Biology 343(3):569-87.
Alba BM, Gross CA. 2004. Regulation of the Escherichia coli sigma-dependent envelope stress response. Molecular Microbiology 52(3):613-9
Young BA, Gruber TM, Gross CA. 2004. Minimal machinery of RNA polymerase holoenzyme sufficient for promoter melting. Science, 03(5662):1382-4.
Gruber TM, Gross CA. 2003. Assay of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase: sigma-core interactions. Methods in Enzymology, 70:206-12.
Gruber TM, Gross CA. 2003. Multiple sigma subunits and the partitioning of bacterial transcription space. Annual Revews in Microbiology, 57:441-66.
Campbell EA, Tupy JL, Gruber TM, Wang S, Sharp MM, Gross CA, Darst SA. 2003. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli sigmaE with the cytoplasmic domain of its anti-sigma RseA. Molecular Cell, 11(4):1067-78.
Walsh NP, Alba BM, Bose B, Gross CA, Sauer RT. 2003. OMP peptide signals initiate the envelope-stress response by activating DegS protease via relief of inhibition mediated by its PDZ domain. Cell, 113(1):61-71.
Ades SE, Grigorova IL, Gross CA. 2003. Regulation of the alternative sigma factor sigma(E) during initiation, adaptation, and shutoff of the extracytoplasmic heat shock response in Escherichia coli. Journal of Bacteriology 185(8):2512-9.
Herman C, Prakash S, Lu CZ, Matouschek A, Gross CA. 2003 Lack of a robust unfoldase activity confers a unique level of substrate specificity to the universal AAA protease FtsH. Mol Cell. 11(3):659-69.
Wang JD, Herman C, Tipton KA, Gross CA, Weissman JS. 2002 Directed evolution of substrate-optimized GroEL/S chaperonins. Cell 111(7):1027-39.
Alba BM, Leeds JA, Onufryk C, Lu CZ, Gross CA. 2002 DegS and YaeL participate sequentially in the cleavage of RseA to activate the sigma(E)-dependent extracytoplasmic stress response. Genes & Development. 16(16):2156-68.
Young BA, Gruber TM, Gross CA. 2002 Views of transcription initiation. Cell. 109(4):417-20.
Gruber TM, Markov D, Sharp MM, Young BA, Lu CZ, Zhong HJ, Artsimovitch I, Geszvain KM, Arthur TM, Burgess RR, Landick R, Severinov K, Gross CA. 2001 Binding of the initiation factor sigma(70) to core RNA polymerase is a multistep process. Mol Cell. 8(1):21-31.
Chan CL, Gross CA. 2001 The anti-initial transcribed sequence, a portable sequence that impedes promoter escape, requires sigma70 for function. J Biol Chem. 276(41):38201-9
Alba BM, Zhong HJ, Pelayo JC, Gross CA. 2001 degS (hhoB) is an essential Escherichia coli gene whose indispensable function is to provide sigma (E) activity. Molecular Microbiology. 40(6):1323-33.
Young BA, Anthony LC, Gruber TM, Arthur TM, Heyduk E, Lu CZ, Sharp MM, Heyduk T, Burgess RR, Gross CA. 2001 A coiled-coil from the RNA polymerase beta' subunit allosterically induces selective nontemplate strand binding by sigma(70). Cell 105(7):935-44.
Cicero MP, Sharp MM, Gross CA, Kreuzer KN. 2001 Substitutions in bacteriophage T4 AsiA and Escherichia coli sigma(70) that suppress T4 motA activation mutations. Journal of Bacteriology 183(7):2289-97.
Behrens S, Maier R, de Cock H, Schmid FX, Gross CA. 2001 The SurA periplasmic PPIase lacking its parvulin domains functions in vivo and has chaperone activity. EMBO Journal 20(1-2):285-94.

Sharp MM, Chan CL, Lu CZ, Marr MT, Nechaev S, Merritt EW, Severinov K, Roberts JW, Gross CA. 1999 The interface of sigma with core RNA polymerase is extensive, conserved, and functionally specialized. Genes & Development. 13(22):3015-26.
Suh WC, Lu CZ, Gross CA. 1999 Structural features required for the interaction of the Hsp70 molecular chaperone DnaK with its cochaperone DnaJ. J Biol Chem. 274(43):30534-9.
Ades SE, Connolly LE, Alba BM, Gross CA. 1999 The Escherichia coli sigma(E)-dependent extracytoplasmic stress response is controlled by the regulated proteolysis of an anti-sigma factor. Genes & Development. 13(18):2449-61.
Gross CA, Chan C, Dombroski A, Gruber T, Sharp M, Tupy J, Young B. 1998 The functional and regulatory roles of sigma factors in transcription. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 63:141-55.
Suh WC, Burkholder WF, Lu CZ, Zhao X, Gottesman ME, Gross CA. 1998 Interaction of the Hsp70 molecular chaperone, DnaK, with its cochaperone DnaJ. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95(26):15223-8.
De Las Peñas A, Connolly L, Gross CA. 1998 SigmaE is an essential sigma factor in Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95(26):15223-8.
Connolly L, De Las Peñas A, Alba BM, Gross CA. 1997 The response to extracytoplasmic stress in Escherichia coli is controlled by partially overlapping pathways. Genes & Development. 11(15):2012-21.
De Las Peñas A, Connolly L, Gross CA. 1997 The sigmaE-mediated response to extracytoplasmic stress in Escherichia coli is transduced by RseA and RseB, two negative regulators of sigmaE. Molecular Microbiology. 24(2):373-85.
Rouvière PE, Gross CA. 1996 SurA, a periplasmic protein with peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity, participates in the assembly of outer membrane porins. Genes & Development. 10(24):3170-82.
Chan CL, Lonetto MA, Gross CA. 1996 Sigma domain structure: one down, one to go. Structure 4(11):1235-8.
Tavormina PL, Landick R, Gross CA. 1996 Isolation, purification, and in vitro characterization of recessive-lethal-mutant RNA polymerases from Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. Sep;178(17):5263-71.
Dombroski AJ, Johnson BD, Lonetto M, Gross CA. 1996 The sigma subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase senses promoter spacing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93(17):8858-62.
Heisler LM, Feng G, Jin DJ, Gross CA, Landick R. 1996 Amino acid substitutions in the two largest subunits of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase that suppress a defective Rho termination factor affect different parts of the transcription complex. J Biol Chem. 271(24):14572-83.
Wild J, Rossmeissl P, Walter WA, Gross CA. 1996 Involvement of the DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE chaperone team in protein secretion in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 178(12):3608-13.
Tavormina PL, Reznikoff WS, Gross CA. 1996 Identifying interacting regions in the beta subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. J Mol Biol 258(2):213-23.
Gross CA, Chan CL, Lonetto MA. 1996 A structure/function analysis of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 351(1339):475-82.
Kamath-Loeb AS, Lu CZ, Suh WC, Lonetto MA, Gross CA. 1995 Analysis of three DnaK mutant proteins suggests that progression through the ATPase cycle requires conformational changes. J Biol Chem. 270(50):30051-9.
Rouvière PE, De Las Peñas A, Mecsas J, Lu CZ, Rudd KE, Gross CA. 1995 rpoE, the gene encoding the second heat-shock sigma factor, sigma E, in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 14(5):1032-42.
Mecsas J, Welch R, Erickson JW, Gross CA. 1995 Identification and characterization of an outer membrane protein, OmpX, in Escherichia coli that is homologous to a family of outer membrane proteins including Ail of Yersinia enterocolitica. J Bacteriol. 177(3):799-804.
Heisler LM, Suzuki H, Landick R, Gross CA. 1993 Four contiguous amino acids define the target for streptolydigin resistance in the beta subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. J Biol Chem. 268(34):25369-75.
Mecsas J, Rouvière PE, Erickson JW, Donohue TJ, Gross CA. 1993 The activity of sigma E, an Escherichia coli heat-inducible sigma-factor, is modulated by expression of outer membrane proteins. Genes & Development. 7(12B):2618-28.
Dombroski AJ, Walter WA, Gross CA. 1993 Amino-terminal amino acids modulate sigma-factor DNA-binding activity. Genes & Development. 7(12A):2446-55.
Wild J, Walter WA, Gross CA, Altman E. 1993 Accumulation of secretory protein precursors in Escherichia coli induces the heat shock response. J Bacteriol. 175(13):3992-7.
Genetic evidence for the interaction between cluster I and cluster III rifampicin resistant mutations. 1993 Genetic evidence for the interaction between cluster I and cluster III rifampicin resistant mutations. J Mol Biol. 231(1):1-5.
Dombroski AJ, Walter WA, Gross CA. 1993 The role of the sigma subunit in promoter recognition by RNA polymerase. 39(4):311-7.
Zhou YN, Gross CA 1992 How a mutation in the gene encoding sigma 70 suppresses the defective heat shock response caused by a mutation in the gene encoding sigma 32. J Bacteriol. 174(19):6256-63.
Shi W, Zhou Y, Wild J, Adler J, Gross CA. 1992 DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE are required for flagellum synthesis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 174(19):6256-63.
Dombroski AJ, Walter WA, Record MT Jr, Siegele DA, Gross CA. 1992 Polypeptides containing highly conserved regions of transcription initiation factor sigma 70 exhibit specificity of binding to promoter DNA. Cell 70(3):501-12.
Zhou YN, Walter WA, Gross CA. 1992 A mutant sigma 32 with a small deletion in conserved region 3 of sigma has reduced affinity for core RNA polymerase. J Bacteriol. 174(15):5005-12.
Wild J, Kamath-Loeb A, Ziegelhoffer E, Lonetto M, Kawasaki Y, Gross CA. 1992 Partial loss of function mutations in DnaK, the Escherichia coli homologue of the 70-kDa heat shock proteins, affect highly conserved amino acids implicated in ATP binding and hydrolysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 89(15):7139-43.
Wild J, Altman E, Yura T, Gross CA. 1992 DnaK and DnaJ heat shock proteins participate in protein export in Escherichia coli. Genes & Development. 6(7):1165-72.
Lonetto M, Gribskov M, Gross CA. 1992 The sigma 70 family: sequence conservation and evolutionary relationships. J Bacteriol. 174(12):3843-9.
Jin DJ, Burgess RR, Richardson JP, Gross CA. 1992 Termination efficiency at rho-dependent terminators depends on kinetic coupling between RNA polymerase and rho. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 89(4):1453-7.
Singer M, Rossmiessl P, Cali BM, Liebke H, Gross CA. 1991 The Escherichia coli ts8 mutation is an allele of fda, the gene encoding fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase. J Bacteriol. 173(19):6242-8.
Singer M, Walter WA, Cali BM, Rouvière P, Liebke HH, Gourse RL, Gross CA. 1991 Physiological effects of the fructose-1,6-diphosphate aldolase ts8 mutation on stable RNA synthesis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 173(19):6249-57.
Jin DJ, Gross CA. 1991 RpoB8, a rifampicin-resistant termination-proficient RNA polymerase, has an increased Km for purine nucleotides during transcription elongation. J Biol Chem. 266(22):14478-85.
Mecsas J, Cowing DW, Gross CA. 1991 Development of RNA polymerase-promoter contacts during open complex formation. J Mol Biol. 220(3):585-97.
Kamath-Loeb AS, Gross CA. 1991 Translational regulation of sigma 32 synthesis: requirement for an internal control element. J Bacteriol. 173(12):3904-6.
Craig EA, Gross CA. 1991 Is hsp70 the cellular thermometer? Trends Biochem Sci. 16(4):135-40.

Straus D, Walter W, Gross CA. 1990 DnaK, DnaJ, and GrpE heat shock proteins negatively regulate heat shock gene expression by controlling the synthesis and stability of sigma 32. Genes & Development. 4(12A):2202-9.
Cowing DW, Mecsas J, Record MT Jr, Gross CA. 1989 Intermediates in the formation of the open complex by RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing the sigma factor sigma 32 at the groE promoter. Genes & Development. 4(12A):2202-9.
Cowing DW, Gross CA. 1989 Interaction of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase holoenzyme containing sigma 32 with heat shock promoters. DNase I footprinting and methylation protection. J Mol Biol. 210(3):513-20.
Straus DB, Walter WA, Gross CA. 1989 The activity of sigma 32 is reduced under conditions of excess heat shock protein production in Escherichia coli. Genes & Development. 3(12A):2003-10.
Erickson JW, Gross CA. 1989 Identification of the sigma E subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase: a second alternate sigma factor involved in high-temperature gene expression. Genes & Development. 3(9):1462-71.
Jin DJ, Gross CA. 1989 Characterization of the pleiotropic phenotypes of rifampin-resistant rpoB mutants of Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 171(9):5229-31.
Siegele DA, Hu JC, Walter WA, Gross CA. 1989 Altered promoter recognition by mutant forms of the sigma 70 subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. J Mol Biol. 206(4):591-603.
Jin DJ, Gross CA. 1989 Three rpoBC mutations that suppress the termination defects of rho mutants also affect the functions of nusA mutants. Mol Gen Genet. 216(2-3):269-75.
Singer M, Baker TA, Schnitzler G, Deischel SM, Goel M, Dove W, Jaacks KJ, Grossman AD, Erickson JW, Gross CA. 1989 A collection of strains containing genetically linked alternating antibiotic resistance elements for genetic mapping of Escherichia coli. Microbiol Rev. 53(1):1-24.
Straus DB, Walter WA, Gross CA. 1988 Escherichia coli heat shock gene mutants are defective in proteolysis. Genes & Development. 2(12B):1851-8.
Jin DJ, Cashel M, Friedman DI, Nakamura Y, Walter WA, Gross CA. 1988 Effects of rifampicin resistant rpoB mutations on antitermination and interaction with nusA in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 204(2):247-61.
Hu JC, Gross CA. 1988 Mutations in rpoD that increase expression of genes in the mal regulon of Escherichia coli K-12. J Mol Biol. 203(1):15-27.
Siegele DA, Hu JC, Gross CA. 1988 Mutations in rpoD, the gene encoding the sigma 70 subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase, that increase expression of the lac operon in the absence of CAP-cAMP. 203(1):29-37. J Mol Biol.
Zhou YN, Kusukawa N, Erickson JW, Gross CA, Yura T. 1988 Isolation and characterization of Escherichia coli mutants that lack the heat shock sigma factor sigma 32. J Bacteriol. 170(8):3640-9.
Jin DJ, Walter WA, Gross CA. 1988 Characterization of the termination phenotypes of rifampicin-resistant mutants. J Mol Biol. 202(2):245-53.
Jin DJ, Gross CA. Biol. 1988 Mapping and sequencing of mutations in the Escherichia coli rpoB gene that lead to rifampicin resistance. J Mol Biol. 202(1):45-58.
Straus DB, Walter WA, Gross CA. 1987 The heat shock response of E. coli is regulated by changes in the concentration of sigma 32. Nature 329(6137):348-51.
Erickson JW, Vaughn V, Walter WA, Neidhardt FC, Gross CA. 1987 Regulation of the promoters and transcripts of rpoH, the Escherichia coli heat shock regulatory gene. Genes & Development. 1(5):419-32.
Grossman AD, Straus DB, Walter WA, Gross CA. 1987 Sigma 32 synthesis can regulate the synthesis of heat shock proteins in Escherichia coli. Genes & Development. 1(2):179-84.
Grossman AD, Taylor WE, Burton ZF, Burgess RR, Gross CA. 1985 Stringent response in Escherichia coli induces expression of heat shock proteins. J Mol Biol. 186(2):357-65.
Cowing DW, Bardwell JC, Craig EA, Woolford C, Hendrix RW, Gross CA. 1985 Consensus sequence for Escherichia coli heat shock gene promoters. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 82(9):2679-83.
Reznikoff WS, Siegele DA, Cowing DW, Gross CA. 1985 The regulation of transcription initiation in bacteria. Annu Rev Genet. 19:355-87.
Hu JC, Gross CA. 1985 Mutations in the sigma subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase which affect positive control of transcription. Mol Gen Genet. 199(1):7-13.
Baker TA, Grossman AD, Gross CA. 1984 A gene regulating the heat shock response in Escherichia coli also affects proteolysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 81(21):6779-83.
Grossman AD, Erickson JW, Gross CA. 1984 The htpR gene product of E. coli is a sigma factor for heat-shock promoters. Cell 38(2):383-90.
Taylor WE, Straus DB, Grossman AD, Burton ZF, Gross CA, Burgess RR. 1984 Transcription from a heat-inducible promoter causes heat shock regulation of the sigma subunit of E. coli RNA polymerase. Cell 38(2):371-81.
Grossman AD, Ullmann A, Burgess RR, Gross CA. 1984 Regulation of cyclic AMP synthesis in Escherichia coli K-12: effects of the rpoD800 sigma mutation, glucose, and chloramphenicol. J Bacteriol. 158(1):110-4.
Gross CA, Grossman AD, Liebke H, Walter W, Burgess RR. 1984 Effects of the mutant sigma allele rpoD800 on the synthesis of specific macromolecular components of the Escherichia coli K12 cell. J Mol Biol. 172(3):283-300.
Baker TA, Howe MM, Gross CA. 1983 Mu dX, a derivative of Mu d1 (lac Apr) which makes stable lacZ fusions at high temperature. J Bacteriol. 156(2):970-4.
Burton ZF, Gross CA, Watanabe KK, Burgess RR. 1983 The operon that encodes the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase also encodes ribosomal protein S21 and DNA primase in E. coli K12. Cell 32(2):335-49.
Hu JC, Gross CA. 1983 Marker rescue with plasmids bearing deletions in rpoD identifies a dispensable part of E. coli sigma factor. Mol Gen Genet. 191(3):492-8.
Grossman AD, Burgess RR, Walter W, Gross CA. 1983 Mutations in the Ion gene of E. coli K12 phenotypically suppress a mutation in the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase. Cell 32(1):151-9.
Burton Z, Burgess RR, Lin J, Moore D, Holder S, Gross CA. 1981 The nucleotide sequence of the cloned rpoD gene for the RNA polymerase sigma subunit from E coli K12. Nucleic Acids Res. 9(12):2889-903.
Gross CA, Blattner FR, Taylor WE, Lowe PA, Burgess RR. 1979 Isolation and characterization of transducing phage coding for sigma subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 76(11):5789-93.
Burgess RR, Gross CA, Walter W, Lowe PA. 1979 Altered chemical properties in three mutants of E. coli RNA polymerase sigma subunit. Mol Gen Genet. 175(3):251-7.
deHaseth PL, Gross CA, Burgess RR, Record MT Jr. 1977 Measurement of binding constants for protein-DNA interactions by DNA-cellulose chromatography. Biochemistry 16(22):4777-83.
von Hippel PH, Revzin A, Gross CA, Wang AC. 1974 Non-specific DNA binding of genome regulating proteins as a biological control mechanism: I. The lac operon: equilibrium aspects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 71(12):4808-12.
Laiken SL, Gross CA, Von Hippel PH. 1972 Equilibrium and kinetic studies of Escherichia coli lac repressor-inducer interactions. J Mol Biol. 66(1):143-55.